Gendered Identities and Immigrant Language Learning (Critical Language and Literacy Studies)

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Nelson, T. Hubinette, E. Kim, J. Myong eds. East Africa. Ball eds. Sociolinguistics around the world: A handbook pp. London: Routledge. Nguyen eds. Honolulu: The University of Hawaii Press. Ibrahim, H. Pennycook eds. Global linguistic flows: Hip hop cultures, youth identities, and the politics of language pp. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Posthumanism and its implications for discourse studies. Georgakopoulou Eds.

Handbook of Discourse Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barrett Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Contact Englishes. Routledge Handbook of English Language Studies.

Bestselling Series

Language education and globalization. May Ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Education. New York: Springer. Space, place and language. Canagarajah Ed. The Routledge Handbook of Migration and Language. New York: Routledge. Sandhu, P. Identity in post-colonial contexts. The Routledge handbook of language and Identity. Researching identity through narrative analysis. Ennser-Kananen Eds. Bonny Norton. Chapelle ed. The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Figure 1 depicts two children riding together, illustrating that the communal experience bike-riding with friends is often what gives lasting meaning to the experience of bike-riding for many children.

In this regard, the social view is consonant with views on health literacy as an attribute of social systems, as articulated by Papen [ 27 ], Nutbeam [ 11 ], and the Calgary Charter on Health Literacy [ 30 ]. Lastly, Figure 1 depicts the adolescents wearing helmets, required safety gear for reducing the risk of serious or fatal head injuries. To extend our bike-riding metaphor, gaining health literacy competence as an adolescent requires learning to recognize the link between risk-preventive behaviors and positive health outcomes.

In this commentary, we aim to highlight several promising research domains where it would be beneficial to explore decision-making processes undergirding health care practices, including the risky ones that immigrant adolescents engage in. We are excited about new lines of health literacy research as we anticipate that immigrant adolescents have a lot to teach us about how all of us learn complex health literacy processes over time and diverse contexts.

This section addresses several promising areas of research on immigrant adolescent health literacy, with an emphasis on socially situated views on health literacy. Readers are encouraged to view these research directions as starting points for interdisciplinary deliberation and partnership-formation, rather than a comprehensive research agenda on immigrant adolescent health literacy. We acknowledge the serious legal and ethical concerns, as well as the potential health risks, when immigrant adolescents are asked to take on adult responsibilities in health care e.

By examining how immigrant adolescents make sense of spoken and written health information, and navigate gaps in communication, across languages, and lines of authority, we are likely to gain insight into the conditions which foster the development of interactive and critical health literacy. Faustich Orellana et al.

For example, Faustich Orellana et al. I wanted the complaint to sound like it came from a grown-up, my mother, but I also wanted to stress how rude the lady was, writing that she was very impatient with our situation and that my mom felt very uncomfortable with her and that it was really hard for her to express herself and to understand the lady. While there is rich ethnographic data on linguistic brokering in education, sociology, and applied linguistics [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 38 , 39 ], we have yet to systematically study how linguistic brokering relates to the growth of immigrant adolescent health literacy.

More detailed explorations of how immigrant adolescents learn to recognize and interpret the complex power dynamics of brokering encounters in health care and adjust their messaging, using available languages, modalities spoken, written , and registers, seems vital if we want to understand how to effectively promote interactive and critical health literacy. Investment is defined as the degree to which a language learner ascribes social, cultural, and political value to the enterprise of learning new skills and competencies [ 42 ].

Identity research already suggests ways that immigrant adolescents may be invested in health literacy practices. This study points to possible gendered dimensions that propel health literacy development for immigrant female youth differently than for their male counterparts. Moje et al. Studies on adolescent health literacy and digital environment tend to rely on a functional view of health literacy with an emphasis on knowledge or skill acquisition, such as the honing of effective information seeking skills in online environments [ 45 , 46 , 47 ].

Similarly, Lam [ 51 ] has showed that immigrant youth routinely seek out online news resources in the U. In what languages do immigrant adolescents search for health information, and to what extent does their knowledge of multiple languages prompt them to seek out information from a broader array of health information? This observation raises interesting conceptual and empirical questions regarding the relationship between digital literacies and immigrant adolescent health literacies.

Existing research also suggests that immigrant adolescents may cope with acculturative stress through participation in the digital world. For example, Gilhooly and Lee [ 53 ] examined the digital literacy practices of three Karen teenage brothers whose family left Burma and lived for several years in a Thai refugee camp before moving to the U. The teenagers learned to use a computer after arriving in the U.

Perhaps more poignantly, the teenagers used their digital tools to create original music videos, short autobiographical films, and photo montages that communicated their political views on the political conflict in Burma, their experience in a Thai refugee camp, and their pride in Karen cultural symbols and traditions. On the one hand, we could argue that youth-driven digital literacy practices are exploratory rehearsals for future navigation in online environments in health care.

Many immigrant adolescents face a daunting task as English language learners: they must quickly develop proficiency in English while managing the complex demands of reading and writing in a variety of content areas e. These adolescents have experienced interruptions in their schooling in their home countries for a variety of reasons: poverty, civil wars, geographic isolation, legally sanctioned restrictions to schooling, resettlement processes that require families to move in order to verify their eligibility for assistance, and natural disasters [ 60 ].

The U. A pervasive theme in the educational literature on SLIFE are the challenges of educating learners with serious emotional needs stemming from traumatic life experiences e. Of particular urgent concern is the adaptation struggles of unaccompanied adolescents placed into foster care who must navigate the transition into adulthood relatively quickly, and under incredibly stressful circumstances [ 63 ].

The unique socio-emotional and learning needs of SLIFE can easily get lost in the shuffle of school placement processes that inconsistently place based on age or completed years of schooling. In response, DeCapua, Smathers, and Tang [ 64 ] developed an extensive school-based interview protocol that aims to provide a safe zone for SLIFE to talk about their family circumstances, such as these excerpts:. We had to leave our home because of the war.

I come with my brother but my mother and other brothers stay home. I living with my father and sister and brother, but I miss my mother so much. Fortunately, in the public health world, there have already been numerous calls for improvements in counseling and mental health services e. However, more interdisciplinary research on the implications for immigrant adolescent health literacy is needed.

As practitioners who have worked in schools, we are compelled to explore the range of health literacy tasks immigrant adolescents encounter in the context of mental health support and services provided by teachers and school counselors.

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More descriptive studies about the way SLIFE use their language and literacy tools to cope with stress and emotional trauma as shown in the earlier example of the three Karen brothers will provide additional evidence for ways that migration histories are tied to health literacy learning. Longitudinal studies will also be critical to assess changes in health literacy practices over time and the relationship to long-term adaptation outcomes.

Clearly, working with SLIFE learners presents a unique and challenging set of circumstances for teachers and school counselors; too often these professionals lack the training, time, and resources to adequately support SLIFE in schools. We do not know of any studies that have examined the communication and navigation practices of the school-based practitioners who are responsible for SLIFE well-being. Another pervasive theme in the educational literature on SLIFE learners is that they learn differently from children who have print skills in their first language [ 69 ]. For example, their prior schooling experiences are anchored in spoken language which makes the transition to learning from printed texts challenging [ 70 ].

Additionally, children who have attended school in refugee camps may have been taught in different languages, depending on whether the local policy stipulated instruction in the first-language or the host-county language, further complicating the mastery of academic skills in English.

Multiliteracies Framework for Language Teaching

As well I have students who have lived in refugees camps for ten years and have no background in schooling, not just the learning again, but the rituals of school, how to cope with the day to day, the system of bells and requirements… those extremes are very wide. We have argued that SLIFE, a growing sector in the immigrant adolescent population, deserves more attention as a population of study in health literacy research. We anticipate that research on immigrant adolescent health literacy will require a similar reckoning of assumptions about literacy that have prevailed in the health literacy field.

A research agenda on immigrant adolescent health literacy needs to be able to clarify the relationship between health literacy and health education, which already has a long-established history in the U. Although a comprehensive review of U. However, states still specify content areas through which schools can address these standards. More research is needed to specify the health literacy competencies that might be effectively reinforced in schools for immigrant adolescents at various grades, or levels of English proficiency.

The NHES framework expects the high school learner to be able to analyze the influence of family, peers, community, media, and culture on health outcomes Performance Indicators 2.

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From a social perspective, however, this influence is viewed as a given. As mentioned earlier, Higgins et al. Higgins et al. To recap, our goal in this section is not to provide a definitive list of research directions on immigrant adolescent health literacy. Rather, we wanted to suggest some of the conceptual and practical motivations and potential benefits of doing this work see Appendix A for a compilation of possible research directions. We already have evidence regarding the cognitive and social achievements that adolescent immigrants make as readers, writers, and thinkers exhibit in a variety of nonschool-related literacy activities, such as translating for family members or information-seeking across multiple media platforms.

For those of us working in literacy education and applied linguists, we are optimistic that studies on immigrant adolescent health literacy will reveal pathways for literacy growth that may differ from what has been taken to be normative in schools. This work will affirm the significance of research on out-of-school literacies in its own right, not merely as a counter-response to research on in-school literacies.

Moreover, research on immigrant adolescent health literacy will hopefully guide our pedagogical decisions as we try to help learners who may demonstrate impressive health literacy practices out of school but struggle to transfer these competencies to learning in school.

For the health literacy field to respond meaningfully to the diverse learning needs and migration trajectories of immigrant adolescents, it must more fully reject the premise that immigrant adolescent health literacy can be reduced to a functional set of reading skills.

This paradigmatic shift will enable us to regard immigrant adolescent health literacy as one of many literacies adolescents learn to master, and part of a broader, evolving repertoire of communicative choices, tools for inquiry, and relationships. From the literacy as social practice perspective, we prefer to envision immigrant adolescent health literacy as a domain of social activity and adaptive change, not merely as a collection of skills and abilities. As an interdisciplinary research team, we know firsthand that increased collaboration between our fields of immigrant literacy and public health has reinvigorated our own health literacy research directions and sparked new thinking about how to promote health literacy among immigrant adolescents in and out of schools.

We hope our commentary inspires more interdisciplinary collaborations in pursuit of empirical clarity concerning the relationship between transnationalism and the development of health literacy in the immigrant adolescent population. One concrete outcome of our own interdisciplinary collaborative efforts is a shared vocabulary, understanding, and conceptualization of how we can best support the health literacy competence of immigrant adolescents. Concepts, such as investment, give us a new vocabulary for describing the social dimensions of health literacy learning, and identify new approaches for harnessing social contexts in the design of developmentally appropriate health literacy interventions and health messaging for immigrant youth.

With serious investment of time and funding, an interdisciplinary research agenda promises to reveal the ways immigrant adolescents learn what it means to navigate our health care system as they deploy multiple languages across a spectrum of modalities print, oral, visual, and digital , participate in diverse social networks that include local and global peers, and make use of cultural resources in the U.

In this regard, research on immigrant adolescents can provide fresh evidence in support of health literacy as a contextualized and embedded capacity, an evolving mastery of health literacy practices as the adolescent interacts with her environment not a discrete set of reading and writing skills learned step by step. Greater understanding of what health literacy competence looks like for this diverse population could ultimately strengthen our knowledge about more general ways that social context influences the health literacy development of all children and adults.

We would like to thank the anonymous peer-reviewers for their helpful comments, particularly regarding the discussion of our bike-riding metaphor. We also wish to thank Kerri Santos, graphic designer, for her editing work on the bike-riding graphic Figure 1. How does knowledge of other languages open or close-down routes to participation in health care encounters?

To what extent do linguistic brokering encounters provide immigrant adolescents with opportunities to develop health literacy practices across functional, communicative, and critical levels? In what ways do changes in health literacy competence reflect or contrast with their academic literacy competencies?

How does the relationship between immigrant adolescent health literacy and schooled academic literacies vary for learners based on differences in print knowledge and metalinguistic awareness? Christina Zarcadoolas, personal communication, 21 March over communication barriers in health care, and expanding their ability to participate more fully in health literacy activities? To what extent are the immigrant adolescent health literacy activities transnational in scope, as they use technology to interact with social groups and diverse informational resources that span geographical borders? How can these examples inform health literacy intervention efforts?

What is the range and variation of health literacy activities in which immigrant adolescents participate? To what extent do immigrant adolescents demonstrate an understanding of the social and institutional expectations that govern interactions in health care contexts? To what extent do U.

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